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    Our research and development teams operate at a global level and generate synergies from our collective expertise and by drawing on related disciplines. We are also constantly exchanging information at an international level with independent technical institutions, key opinion leaders and multipliers in order to be able to ensure cooperation and knowledge management of the highest order. As part of this process, we also conduct extensive research, the results of which we continually present in workshops, at conferences and symposiums - either in documentation or talks given by our cooperation partners - and also publish in renowned scientific journals. This database contains a large number of these evidence-based scientific articles, most of which have been evaluated by independent assessors:

    1. Journal article

      Alveolar iodine tampon packing after impacted third molar surgery improves oral health-related quality of life and postoperative sequela: a randomized study

      Oral and maxillofacial surgery 2021 25(2) 181190


      The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an iodine tampon on postoperative discomfort after surgical removal of a mandibular third molar.


      Patients were randomly assigned to two groups: one group received an alveolar iodine-containing tampon in the extraction socket (N = 44), and the other group used a disposable syringe (Monoject®) to rinse the wound (N = 43). Postoperative discomfort was assessed with the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14) questionnaire, Pain Intensity Numerical Rating Scale (PI-NRS), and questions about self-care and discomfort.


      This study included 87 patients (52 women and 35 men) with an average age of 26.47 years (SD, 6.36). The mean OHIP-14 sum scores were significantly lower in the iodine tampon group compared with the Monoject® syringe group. Mean PI-NRS scores significantly differed between the iodine tampon group (3.33; SE, 0.27) and Monoject® syringe group (4.46; SE, 0.27) (F (1, 85) = 8.16, p < 0.01), with no interaction effect between time and PI-NRS (F (6, 510) = 1.26, p = 0.28). Patients in the iodine tampon group reported less postoperative discomfort.


      Insertion of an iodine-containing tampon in the postoperative socket reduced the pain and impact on oral health-related quality of life during the first postoperative week and positively influenced postoperative sequelae.

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      PMID 32862256
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    2. Journal article

      Endoscopic negative pressure therapy for a broad rectal fistula using pull-through open-pore film and polyurethane foam drains

    3. Journal article

      An audit to assess the impact of prescribing a monofilament fibre debridement pad for patients with unhealed wounds after six months

      Journal of wound care 2021 30(5) 381388

      A monofilament fibre debridement pad has been found to be a rapid and effective mechanical method of removing dry skin, biofilm and debris from acute and chronic wounds with minimal patient discomfort. Evidence of its impact on prescribing and wound healing, however, has been more limited. The aim of this audit was to show evidence of the monofilament fibre debridement pad's impact on wound treatment costs through an analysis of NHS wound-care prescribing data in England. A dataset for 486 uniquely identified patients who had been newly prescribed the monofilament fibre debridement pad was obtained from the NHS Business Services Authority. All data were anonymised. Costs were identified for the six months before and six months after the month of first prescription of the monofilament fibre debridement pad. The total cost of wound-care prescribing fell by 14% or £101,723 in the six months after the intervention compared with the six months before. The average monthly expenditure per patient fell from £244 before the intervention to £209 (n=486) after. These results indicate that use of the monofilament fibre debridement pad could reduce prescribing costs and the use of antimicrobial and negative pressure therapies. Further research is warranted to investigate the clinical role of the monofilament fibre debridement pad in wound healing.

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      PMID 33979215
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    4. Journal article

      In vitro Activity of Antimicrobial Wound Dressings on P. aeruginosa Wound Biofilm

      Frontiers in microbiology 2021 12 664030

      The treatment of acute and chronic infected wounds with residing biofilm still poses a major challenge in medical care. Interactions of antimicrobial dressings with bacterial load, biofilm matrix and the overall protein-rich wound microenvironment remain insufficiently studied. This analysis aimed to extend the investigation on the efficacy of a variety of antimicrobial dressings using an in vitro biofilm model (lhBIOM) mimicking the specific biofilm-environment in human wounds. Four wound dressings containing polyhexanide (PHMB), octendine di-hydrochloride (OCT), cadexomer-iodine (C-IOD) or ionic silver (AG) were compared regarding their antimicrobial efficacy. Quantitative analysis was performed using a quantitative suspension method, separately assessing remaining microbial counts within the solid biofilm as well as the dressing eluate (representing the absorbed wound exudate). Dressing performance was tested against P. aeruginosa biofilms over the course of 6 days. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to obtain qualitative visualization on changes in biofilm structure. C-IOD demonstrated superior bacterial reduction. In comparison it was the only dressing achieving a significant reduction of more than 7 log10 steps within 3 days. Neither the OCT- nor the AG-containing dressing exerted a distinct and sustained antimicrobial effect. PHMB achieved a non-significant microbicidal effect (1.71 ± 0.31 log10 steps) at day 1. Over the remaining course (6 days) it demonstrated a significant microbistatic effect compared to OCT, AG and the control. Quantitative results in the dressing eluate correlate with those of the solid biofilm model. Overall, AG- and OCT-containing dressings did not achieve the expected anti-biofilm efficacy, while C-IOD performed best. Chemical interaction with the biofilms extrapolymeric substance (EPS), visualized in the SEM, and dressing configuration (agent concentration and release pattern) are suspected to be responsible. The unexpected low and diverse results of the tested antimicrobial dressings indicate a necessity to rethink non-debridement anti-biofilm therapy. Focussing on the combination of biofilm-disruptive (for EPS structure) and antimicrobial (for residing microorganisms) features, as with C-IOD, using dehydration and iodine, appears reasonably complementary and an optimal solution, as suggested by the here presented in vitro data.

      PMID 34054768
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    5. Journal article

      Debridement: When, How, and Why?

    6. Journal article

      Endoscopic negative pressure therapy for upper gastrointestinal leaks: Description of a fashioned device allowing simultaneous enteral feeding

      VideoGIE 2021 6(2) 5861

      Endoscopic negative pressure therapy (ENPT) represents a modern and effective treatment strategy for gastrointestinal tract wall defects. The intracavitary treatment strategy is based on placing a sponge within the defect cavity (Fig. 1), whereas the intraluminal treatment approach is based on placing a drainage device within the visceral lumen overlapping the defect area (Fig. 2). These strategies complement each other and are successful treatments for gastrointestinal perforation and postoperative adverse events in the upper or lower GI tract.

      An open-pore film drainage (OFD) device was first described in 2015 by Loske et al3 and has been used for several indications in the upper GI tract, urinary tract, and other sites. OFD may offer several advantages in terms of easier placement, adhesiveness to the wound base, less frequent reintervention, and better fluid mobilization. In this video (Video 1, available online at, we present the assembly and placement procedure of a fashioned OFD device that allows simultaneous enteral feeding.

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    7. Journal article

      Effect of Negative Pressure Therapy on Open Abdomen Treatments. Prospective Randomized Study With Two Commercial Negative Pressure Systems

      Frontiers in Surgary 2021 7 596056

      The use of negative pressure dressings for open abdominal therapy has made a great impact on strategies for open abdominal treatment. Observed intestinal damage and developement of fistula formation raises questions about safety of commonly used systems (AB-Thera). The most common used system uses foils for shielding intestines directly from negative pressure. As an alternative a system with open pore dressing in double layer film was introduced (Suprasorb CNP) and proved to safe in animal studies. We compared the effects of this two systems on patients requiring open abdominal treatment.Materials and methods: Patients with secondary peritonitis in at least two abdominal quadrants were included in this randomized study. Inclusion criteria were secondary peritonitis (ACS), abdominal compartment syndrome, and abdominal trauma combined with ACS and/or contaminated abdomen. Patients with active bleeding and pancreatitis were not included. We examined Mannheim peritonitis Index (MPI), bloodcount, PCT, amount of fluid collected, and morphological changes on the bowel. Data were collected on day 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Primary end point was fascial closure. Examination was terminated in case of death and damage to the abdominal organs. Groups were compared using Mann Whitney U-test and chi square test. Trend evaluation was evaluated using an one way repeated measure analysis of variance. P-values below 0.05 was

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    8. Journal article

      Endoluminal Vacuum Therapy Using a New “Fistula Sponge” In Small Defects of the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract – A Comparative, Single Center Study

      Endoscopy 2021 42

      Aims Anastomotic insufficiencies(AI) and perforations of the upper gastrointestinal tract(uGIT) result in high morbidity and mortality. Besides surgical revision and endoscopic stent placement the endoluminal vacuum therapy(EVT) has been established as an additional strategy. So far, the Eso-Sponge is the only licensed EVT system with limitations in very small defects. Therefore, a fistula sponge(FS) was established in our center for the treatment of small defects of the uGIT as a new therapeutic approach. To evaluate success rates, indications and complications of both EVT options in a retrospective, single-center trial.


      Methods Between 01/2018 and 12/2020 all patients undergoing either a FS-EVT or conventional EVT(cEVT) with Eso-Sponge (Braun Melsungen, Germany) due to AI or perforation of the uGIT were recorded. Following criteria were evaluated: indication, diameter of leakage, therapy success and complications. FSs were prepared using a nasogastric tube (6-16Ch diameter) and a porous drainage film (Suprasorb CNP, Lohmann&Rauscher, Germany)(length 1 – 6 cm) sutured to the distal tip.


      Results N = 72 patients were included in this analysis (FS-EVT N = 20; cEVT N = 52). FS-EVT was performed in 60 % suffering from AI (cEVT = 68 %) and 40 % from perforation (cEVT = 32 %;p>0.05). After 6.2±3.3d of treatment FSs were exchanged every three days in average, comparable data were obtained for cEVT. The mean diameter of the defect was 9 mm in the FS-EVT group compared to 24 mm in cEVT(p < 0.001), the depth of the leakage showed no significant difference (46 mm for both groups). Therapeutic success (development of granulation tissue, resolution of the leak) was achieved in 90 % (FS-EVT) and 91 % (cEVT) respectively (p > 0.05).


      Conclusions EVT comprises an extraordinary treatment option of transmural defects of the uGIT. In clinical practice fistulas <10 mm with large abscess formations exhibit a special challenge, since intraluminal cEVT normally fails. In these cases the concept of extraluminal FS placement is safe and effective.

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    9. Poster

      Establishment of a moist environment by a new foam dressing (NFD)* beneficial for wound healing in vitro

      Poster presented at EWMA 2020 18.11.2020 Virtual Conference

      Aim: Foam dressings are thought to aid in the establishment of a beneficial moist wound environment as they exhibit excellent fluid management capacity by absorbing as well as donating fluid. Therefore, a scratch wound healing model using human fibroblasts and keratinocytes was developed depending on the donation of fluid by the applied dressings. The effect on cell proliferation and migration of NFD* and cotton gauze was investigated.


      Methods: Human dermal fibroblasts (DF) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT) were seeded into 6-well-plates and cultivated for 48h before scratching. NFD and gauze were cut aseptically (d=3.5cm), soaked in medium and applied directly on the cell scratches without further medium addition. Cells were stained with hematoxylin/eosin after 1, 6, 24, and 48h. Scratches were photographed using a digital microscope and evaluated using the Image J program.


      Results: It was found that NFD supported the scratch healing in vitro by promoting fibroblast and keratinocyte proliferation and migration through establishing a moist wound environment. Results were almost comparable to the medium control. In contrast, scratches covered with gauze remained open, probably due to the loss of moisture by drying of the wound dressing.


      Conclusions: It could be shown that NFD is able to promote wound healing by effectively creating humid conditions favouring wound closure while gauze was not able to maintain the moist environment resulting in non-healing cell scratch wounds in vitro.


      *NFD - Suprasorb® P sensitive (Lohmann&Rauscher)

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    10. Poster

      Mechanical debridement of leg ulcers and the surrounding skin using a monofilament fibre debridement pad designed for larger wounds and surface areas

      Poster presented at WUWHS 2020 13.09.2020 Abu Dhabi, UAE

      Background and Aims

      In the management of leg ulcers and hyperkeratosis of the surrounding skin, it is not uncommon for them to affect very large areas of the leg. The large size also leads to an increase in the level of exudate and the amount of devitalised tissue. As a result, a larger amount of material is needed to loosen and remove the devitalised tissue than is the case with smaller wounds. To evaluate the performance of this debridement pad optimised for larger wounds and the surrounding skin, a small case series was performed.



      For the case series leg ulcers of various origins that needed debridement were treated once or over a longer period of time with the larger pad when indicated. The treatment was documented both photographically and in writing.



      Five patients between the ages of 64 and 83 were treated. All of them suffered from chronic ulcers covering a big area on their legs. At least some of the wounds were colonised with bacteria/biofilm. Two patients were suffering from hyperkeratosis, too. The debridement with the debridement pad was well tolerated by the patients. Biofilm as well as devitalised tissue were removed effectively. All wounds were healed or becoming better.



      Most of the time one pad was sufficient, even for ulcers spreading to cover the entire gaiter area. A much larger area could be treated efficiently and quicker than it would have been possible with a smaller device. In addition, the enlargement of the device is accompanied by an increase in the absorption capacity for exudate, slough and debris.

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