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Case study: night compression use in a patient with Milroy's diseaseBritish journal of nursing (Mark Allen Publishing) 2022 31(12) 3441
Lymphoedema is associated with dysfunctional lymphatics, tissue fibrosis and inflammatory changes in the skin and local tissue. Ensuring compression supports tissue health is crucial to managing lymphoedema. Providing patients with safe compression which enhances their tissue health is paramount when supporting their 24-hour self-management regimens. This case study explores the use of a new compression garment in two sitting positions in an adult with primary lymphoedema.
An 18-year-old female (body mass index 25.2 kg/m2) with Milroy's disease was recruited. She attended two separate 1-hour sessions to evaluate tissue oxygenation (StO2) in chair-sitting and long-sitting (sitting up with a supported back and legs horizontal) positions. Following removal of her usual class 2 (20-30 mmHg) flat-knit compression hosiery, StO2 was recorded for 20 minutes: pre-, during and post the application of an adjustable compression garment (Lohmann & Rauscher) to the right leg.
In the long-sitting position, StO2 levels started high at baseline (94.5%), and were relatively maintained both during and post-a short 20-minute intervention (94.1%). In the chair-sitting position, StO2 levels were significantly lower at baseline (52%), showing a 77% increase during the intervention (92%), followed by a small 9% decrease post-intervention (83.7%).
This compression garment significantly increased StO2 levels in the chair-sitting position, while maintaining the effects of the patient's compression stockings, in the long-sitting position. Similar to non-lymphoedematous limbs, the patient's normal prescription hosiery maintains StO2. Through implementation of the short intervention sessions, night compression garments may have the potential to improve tissue health in individuals with primary lymphoedema, encouraging self-management and offering a potential night compression solution where the need arises in a 24-hour management plan.PMID 35736853
A biofilm based wound care pathway in the community setting:: a reviewWounds UK 2022 18(4) 1420
In recent years, the impact of biofilms on non-healing wounds has gained increasing interest and it has been reported that between 80% to 100% of non-healing wounds have a biofilm associated with them that impedes wound healing (Bjarnsholt et al, 2017; Malone et al, 2017). Biofilms consist of a complex community of microorganisms, which tend to attach to surfaces, and are encased within a matrix consisting of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) (Malone et al, 2017). This matrix provides
the microorganisms with protection against antimicrobial treatment and an individual’s immune system. There is an increasing focus and awareness around the use of biofilm based wound care (BBWC) pathways, and they are recommended in several consensus documents (Bianchi et al, 2016; Shultz et al, 2017; Murphy et al, 2020; International Wound Infection Institute (IWII), 2022), This article will discuss the evidence behind BBWC and the potential for introduction of a BBWC pathway into the community setting.
Application of an antimicrobial cellulose wound dressing on infected lower leg ulcers: 2 case studiesPoster presented at WoundsUK 2021 08.11.2021 Harrogate, UK
The treatment of infected chronic wounds is a challenge in everyday clinical practice. In the treatment of these wounds polyhexanide (PHMB) is the antiseptic of choice . Patients with difficult personal backgrounds further complicate the successful treatment of these wounds. Two case studies of infected chronic lower leg ulcers are presented. The treatment was carried out with an antimicrobial wound dressing made of cellulose containing PHMB*.
Patient 1: A 27-year-old male patient from the UK with an infected venous leg ulcer on the right lower leg that had been present for 11 months (size: 315 cm², depth: 0.1 cm). Moderate exudation, odour and pain of VAS=7 present. A deep vein thrombosis has recently occurred. In addition, the patient suffers from drug addiction (intravenous), alcohol addiction and mental disorder. The patient was previously treated with a hydrogel-impregnated antimicrobial wound pad and a medical-grade honey dressing. The new treatment consisted of cleaning with a monofilament fibre debridement pad**, the antimicrobial cellulose dressing, a sterile absorbent compress and a tubular dressing as a secondary dressing.
Patient 2: An 80-year-old male patient from Germany with a mixed gaiter ulcer on the right lower leg (size: 450 cm², depth: 1 cm). Before the patient was admitted for treatment, he had already had several inpatient hospital stays. Therapy with a split-thickness skin graft was unsuccessful. The wound is infected with multidrug resistant gram-negative bacteria (MDRGN bacteria). The patient has had several antibiosis. The patient showed a constant incompliance with regard to the therapy attempts. Finally, a healing attempt with medicinal clay took place on the advice of his alternative (non-medical) practitioner. The patient was taken over with a massive infection, severe exudation and odour formation. Wound and lower leg pain correspondent to 8 on the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The entire lower leg was oedematous and papular indurations were present in the area of the forefoot. The wound was covered with biofilm and partially with fibrin. The wound edges and the surrounding skin were inflamed. Individual lesions were present. The patient's hygiene was poor. The weekly treatment was as follows: The wound was first cleaned with a wound irrigation solution containing sodium hypochlorite and a monofilament fibre debridement pad. The primary wound dressing was the cellulose dressing with PHMB. A highly absorbent wound compress*** and a superabsorbent wound dressing‡ served as a secondary dressing. In addition, the edema was treated with a compression bandage‡‡.
Patient 1: After 14 days and 5 dressing changes, the wound pain had decreased significantly (VAS = 1). The wound odour was gone. While the beginning granulation of the previously stagnant wound was particularly positive from the point of view of the user, the patient was particularly pleased that the wound odour had disappeared and that wound exudate no longer penetrated the dressing. The treatment was continued accordingly.
Patient 2: After 3 weeks, not only had the wound pain (VAS = 6-7) decreased, but the wound odour and signs of infection had disappeared. Granulation tissue was visible. After 4 weeks, the wound pain (VAS = 5-6) decreased even more. Although the patient acknowledged the success of the therapy and the reduction in pain, he stopped the treatment on the advice of his alternative practitioner.
Although the two cases involved patients with longstanding chronic wounds and difficult personal backgrounds, the users were able to heal the wound within a short time with the help of the antimicrobial cellulose wound dressing and adequate modern wound care. For the two users, the rapid treatment success, in the form of the beginning healing, was gratifying. For the patients, it was primarily the pain reduction and the decrease in wound odour that were particularly well received. This is not surprising, as these two factors play a major role in the patient's quality of life.
The antimicrobial wound dressing proved to be a suitable for the treatment of infected chronic wounds.Further versionsFurther languages
Evaluation of different schort-stretch compression systems with zinc for stasis dermatitisPoster presented at EWMA 2021 26.10.2021 Virtual Conference
Aim: Stasis dermatitis is a common inflammatory dermatosis of the lower extremities. The mainstay is treatment of the underlying chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) with multimodal therapy, which is aimed at reducing oedema and venous hypertension. External compression with short stretch bandages, impregnated with zinc oxide, is used as first line therapy simultaneously reducing swelling and employing anti-inflammatory effects of zinc. Our aim was to compare two different short-stretch systems with zinc oxide, both from the patients and staff point of view.
Method: 10 patients with bilateral stasis dermatitis were included in the study. 2 patients had only CVI, while 8 patients had phlebolymphoedema. Both legs were treated simultaneously. Self-adherent two-layer bandaging system with zinc1 was applied on one leg and zinc paste bandage2 and adhesive short-stretch system3 was applied on the other leg for 7 days. A questionnaire with was filled out by the patients and the staff. Overall skin inflammation improvement was also assessed.
Results: Both systems proved to be easy and fast to apply. There were no differences in slippage or compliance during wear. Patients had no difficulties with mobility and wearing footwear while using either compression systems. 90% of patients reported that self-adherent bandaging system was at least as comfortable to wear as adhesive bandage. The skin condition was equally improved with both systems.
Conclusion: Both self-adherent and adhesive short-stretch systems with zinc proved to be suitable treatment of stasis dermatitis in patients with venous insufficiency and phlebolymphoedema.Products Varicex
Use of monofilament fibre debridement pad for hyperkeratosis in the communityPoster presented at EWMA 2021 26.10.2021 Virtual Conference
82 year old man with diabetes, congestive cardiac failure and mixed arterial vascular insufficiency had been treated in the home for diabetic health management and a chronic history of leg ulcers.
Patient was suffering from hyperkeratosis and previous treatment was an elastic tubular bandage which was left on for 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
A solution was required which would manage the hyperkeratosis, prevent further skin breakdown and prevent bacterial or fungal build up in the feet and legs. The solution had to be cost effective, gentle on skin and ensure quick, easy removal of excessive skin and debris.
A monofilament fibre debridement pad* was used to clean, remove and descale the hyperkeratosis without damaging healthy skin.
Results / Discussion:
After initial treatment with monofilament fibre debridement pad, there was visible improvement and reduction in hyperkeratosis, no itch and reduction in odour.
Once dead skin and hyperkeratosis was removed, patient was put on a structured skin care regime including cleansing, exfoliation and replenishing the skin barrier using emollients.
Hyperkeratosis of the lower limb is a common skin condition that typically affects patients with chronic venous insufficiency. Patients are often embarrassed by the appearance of their skin, the hyperkeratotic scales and the unpleasant odour. The monofilament fibre debridement pad can be used by all healthcare professionals working in the community, and by patients. It’s effectiveness and ease of use may encourage patients or carers to take an active role in their care.Products Debrisoft PadFurther versions
Compression therapy using reusable short stretch bandaging for treatment of VLUPoster presented at Wounds Australia National Conference 2021 04.05.2021 Virtual Conference, Australia
Patient presented with bi-lateral leg ulceration and was being treated daily by a GP. Wounds had been present for the past 133 weeks and compression therapy was not part of the treatment regime.
Action(s) taken/treatment provided
Upon referral to the Nurse Navigator service at Princess Alexandra Hospital, routine vascular tests were carried out and he was deemed suitable for light compression therapy in addition to a wound care treatment plan, including wound bed preparation with monofilament fibre debridement pad. Compression bandaging is the gold standard treatment for those suffering from venous ulceration. The short-stretch bandage of choice delivers safe, light compression and is washable to help reduce the costs of ongoing treatment.
Wound healing progress was slow but consistent with the use of short stretch compression and the wound care treatment plan. Patient was adherent to care and found compression bandage to be comfortable, affordable, helped to reduce pain and improve quality of life. Leg ulcers fully healed after 32 weeks of treatment.
The Nurse Navigator supported patient care at GP practice to enable collaboration and education of those involved in ongoing care. This ensured a holistic approach to care allowing for systems improvement, patient centred care, improving patient outcomes and most importantly creating partnership between the GP practice and hospital.
Reusable short stretch compression for the treatment of a recurring VLUPoster presented at Wounds Australia National Conference 2021 04.05.2021 Virtual Conference, Australia
Patient is a 73 year old lady who has been suffering with venous leg ulcers since 2016. On presentation, she had leg ulcers measuring more than 50cm2 which were very painful with high levels of exudate.
Action(s) taken/ treatment provided
Compression therapy was initially commenced with a long stretch compression bandage. This was changed to a 2 layer resuable short stretch system due to ease of use and patient comfort. This was a cost effective option as patient was able to wash, re-roll and reuse the bandages throughout her treatment from September 2019 to February 2020. The bandages were skin friendly and comfortable for the patient who is prone to dermatitis. The wounds were managed with alternate combinations of ionic gel dressing for pain relief, cadexomer iodine, antimicrobial dressings and biocellulose hydrobalance dressings.
In the first 4 weeks, the ulcers had reduced in size by 50% and after 6 months of treatment the wounds had fully closed.
In the absence of corrective surgery, compression therapy has been found to be the most effective treatment for venous leg ulcers (VLUs)1. Achieving healing rests on patients’ adherence to treatment and in this case it was found that compression bandages which are both cost effective and comfortable for the patient are more likely to encourage patient concordance. Compression therapy alongside effective wound care resulted in full healing for this patient after 4 years of suffering with venous leg ulcers.
First experience with new second generation ionic gel dressing: A spider bite gone wrongPoster presented at Wounds Australia National Conference 2021 04.05.2021 Virtual Conference, Australia
Patient presented to Hospital in the Home with large wound on the right leg which was suspected to have been caused by a spider bite. The patient was suffering from extreme pain, swelling and blistering.
Action(s) taken/ treatment provided
Wound needed debridement in the clinic to remove necrotic tissue and hardened slough. Due to the wound size and complexity, a combination of debridement methods were chosen, including mechanical with monofilament fibre pad, sharp and autolytic with ionic gel dressing. After full debridement was achieved, the wound bed was able to be thoroughly assessed and wound care plan put in place. Dressing regime included ongoing use of monofilament fibre pad for mechanical debridement and wound bed preparation and gel dressing for pain relief and dynamic fluid management.
The dressings were well tolerated and comfortable for the patient. Over the 4 months of treatment, the wound progressed towards healing and no surgical/specialist intervention or lengthy hospital stay was required.
Wounds with this level of complexity are often not expected to be treated in community settings. With introduction of new products onto the hospital formulary due to a new contract, new technologies were able to be used by the community nurse with successful patient outcomes. The products selected were cost effective, easy to use and reduced the need for antimicrobial dressings. Moving forward, products such as the new second generation ionic gel dressing can be used effectively in the community, reducing the need for specialist intervention.
Treatment of post-surgical toe wound with monofilament fibre pad and second generation ionic hydrogel dressing
44 year old man with chronic history of gout in many joints. The patient had surgical intervention on right big toe due to infection of joint, pain and bone osteomyelitis.
At 2 week post-surgery, the patient experienced delayed healing, pain and odour from the wound. On presentation, the wound had heavy thick slough, undermining of edges and slight hypergranulation at base of wound.
Action(s) taken/treatment(s) provided
Monofilament fibre lolly was used to clean wound bed, disrupt and remove biofilm and slough. Second generation hydrogel dressing then applied to wound bed for autolytic debridement and softening of slough. Pain relief was instant and patient no longer required oral pain medication. Biocellulose hydrobalance dressing was also applied at day 4 to improve and speed up epithelialisation process.
Patient and clinician happy with progress in first 7 days. The treatment and dressings reduced pain and allowed the patient to walk and wear his own shoes. Wound was fully healed after 26 days.
The use of monofilament fibre lolly combined with additional autolytic debridement with second generation ionic hydrogel dressing helped to prepare the wound bed and removed slough, debris and other barriers to healing. Further treatment with hydrogel dressing and hydrobalance dressing helped to create optimal conditions for wound healing.
Combining nursing and podiatry for successful outcomes in a community setting
76 year old lady with systemic pneumococcal infection was in ICU for 6 weeks and now being treated in community nursing and podiatry care. 9 toes were affected with necrosis.
Action(s) taken/ treatment provided
Patient had black, hard necrotic toes which required debridement of tips, nail beds and removal of exposed dead bones. Toes are difficult to dress and required moisture for autolytic debridement. Patient also required a solution which will relieve pain.
It was decided that a combined treatment of community nursing and podiatry would deliver the best outcome for this patient.
• Podiatry: Sharp debridement, removal of nails and removal of protruding dead bony toe phalanges
• Community nursing: Debridement with monofilament fibre pad (in combination with sharp debridement) and dressings for autolytic debridement and pain relief.
After 2 weeks of treatment on the left foot, black necrotic tissue has been softened to allow for further debridement. After 4 weeks of treatment, big toe almost healed and small amount of nail bed regrowth.
After 2 weeks of treatment on the right foot, evidence of granulation and epithelialisation of toes and nail bed areas.
Working as a multi-disciplinary team alongside allied health is vital for the healing process and can help to achieve the best possible clinical and patient outcomes, particularly for complex wounds.