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    Our research and development teams operate at a global level and generate synergies from our collective expertise and by drawing on related disciplines. We are also constantly exchanging information at an international level with independent technical institutions, key opinion leaders and multipliers in order to be able to ensure cooperation and knowledge management of the highest order. As part of this process, we also conduct extensive research, the results of which we continually present in workshops, at conferences and symposiums - either in documentation or talks given by our cooperation partners - and also publish in renowned scientific journals. This database contains a large number of these evidence-based scientific articles, most of which have been evaluated by independent assessors:

    1. Journal article

      Sub-compression interface pressure measurements in vivo, comparing adjustable compression wraps and custom-made flat knit compression stockings

      Phlebologie 2020

      Background

      Adjustable Compression Wraps (ACW) are used as an alternative to flat-knitted compression stockings (CS) in the maintenance phase of complex decongestive therapy treating of lymphoedema.

       

      Methods

      Self-applied ACW and custom-made CS were compared using sub-compression interface pressure measurements in vivo. Measurements were recorded using manometer-based Picopress®-devices in a sample of n = 30 probands with bilateral symmetric lymphostatic lower leg oedema. Legs were randomised to CS side and ACW side. Following standardised instruction and initial pressure measurements for both systems, ACW pressure measurements were repeated after 2 and 4 hours. Static Stiffness Index and pressure gradients between measuring points B1-C were calculated.

       

      Results

      ACW showed resting pressures and SSI in therapeutic ranges and significantly higher than CS (p < 0.01; p < 0.001). ACW reached significantly higher working pressures (p < 0.001). Resting pressure sub-ACW did not show significant pressure drops after 2 and 4 hours, without re-adjusting. Average pressure gradients between ACW and CS did not differ significantly.

       

      Discussion

      The pressure values reached with ACW underline their therapeutic effects. Pressures under self-applied ACW are relatively stable, even without re-adjusting. Self-application is interpreted as effective. A thorough instruction of patients is essential.

      Products ReadyWrap Leg
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    2. Journal article

      Compression hosiery for venous disorders and oedema: a question of balance

      British journal of community nursing 2020 25(9) 2632

      Compression therapy for venous and lymphatic conditions may be delivered via a range of treatment modalities using many different technologies, depending on the patient's condition and needs. Clinical decision-making relies on accurate assessment of the patient, their presenting and underlying clinical condition, skill and training of the applier and the available resources. However, changes in the patient's condition or lifestyle may necessitate re-evaluation of the treatment pathway. Generally, compression bandages and Velcro wraps are used in the intensive acute phase of treatment, with self-management using compression hosiery or wraps being used for long-term maintenance to prevent recurrence. Although guidelines recommend the highest class of compression hosiery for maximum effectiveness, clinical evidence shows practical challenges associated with application and tolerance of higher pressures and stiffness. An audit of a new type of compression garment was conducted, and it showed that incorporating stiffness into circular knitted hosiery helped overcome some of these challenges with improvements in limb size, skin softening and wound size. Additionally, self-management was facilitated by the ease of donning and doffing.

      PMID 32886551
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    3. Poster

      When you have End Stage Heart Failure, 85, your legs leak and you’ve had previous ulcers…. Help!‘

      Poster presented at Wounds UK 2019 04.11.2019 Harrogate, UK
    4. Poster

      Can monofilament fibre technology help in chronic wound overgranulation? A case study

      Poster presented at Wounds UK 2019 04.11.2019 Harrogate, UK
    5. Poster

      COMPREHENSIVE IN VITRO APPROACH FOR TESTING THE PERFORMANCE OF A HYDROACTIVE DRESSING (HAD) IN VITRO

      Poster presented at EWMA 2019 05.06.2019 Gothenburg, Sweden

      Introduction:

      Maceration is the elixation of the skin by prolonged exposure to moisture impeding healing due to failure of skin protection and possible microbial infections. Chronic wounds are often colonized by different kinds of microorganisms, mostly S.aureus and P.aeruginosa. Bacterial load on the wound surface perpetuates an inflammatory environment. It is of interest to elucidate dressing performance by comprehensive in vitro testing including binding capacity for elastase, determination of antibacterial activity, and assessment of fluid handling capability.

       

      Methods:

      A hydroactive dressing (HAD) consisting of cellulose/ethyl-sulfonate-cellulose fibres has been investigated. An in vitro maceration model was used to quantify and evaluate fluid uptake, fluid distribution, and shape changes. Binding capacity for elastase was determined over 24h. Determination of antimicrobial activity was performed according to JIS L 1902:2008 against S.aureus and P.aeruginosa.

       

      Results:

      HAD exhibited significantly higher fluid uptake than an alginate (AD) or a sodiumcarboxymethylcellulose dressing (SCD). It was shown that it possess a distinctly higher form stability. The SCD already macerated before the dressing was completely soaked while leakage with HAD and AD was only observed after they were completely gelled. HAD is further able to reduce the activity of elastase in vitro. And it exhibited a strong antibacterial activity against S.aureus and a significant antibacterial activity against P.aeruginosa.

       

      Conclusions:

      Performance of dressings can be assessed and compared under standard conditions in vitro. Here, HAD is able to reduce elastase activity, inhibit bacterial growth, and possess superior fluid handling capacity compared to AD and SCD.

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    6. Poster

      EVOLUTION OF A NATIONALLY ADOPTED VENOUS LEG ULCER BEST PRACTICE TREATMENT PATHWAY TO REFLECT NEW EVIDENCE

      Poster presented at EWMA 2019 05.06.2019 Gothenburg, Sweden

      Aim:

      A National Best Practice Statement for the holistic management of venous leg ulcers¹ presents a treatment pathway, originally developed by Atkin and Tickle². The aim was to revise this treatment pathway to reflect new evidence³.

       

      Method:

      The treatment pathway was originally developed to reflect published RCT evidence for venous intervention reducing episodes of reoccurrence (ESCHAR trial)⁴ and with leg ulcer hosiery kits as first line as a result of the publication of the VenUS lV study⁵. The treatment pathway has been used since 2016 and needed further updating to reflect the recent evidence investigating the impact of early venous ablation in patients with venous leg ulcers (EVRA)⁶.

       

      Results / Discussion:

      In a group of 34 patients with leg ulceration the implementation of this pathway into everyday clinical practice has been shown after 3 months to deliver a number of benefits including increased healing rates, improved documentation and a reduction of nursing visits⁷;

       From 0% to 76% having their leg ulcer diagnosis recorded

       From 34% to 76% having their ABPI recorded

       From 13% to 83% use of compression therapy

       From 7% to 56% healing or signs of healing

       43% reduction in nursing visits

       

      Conclusion:

      It is vital to ensure that current research evidence is adopted within frontline services as soon as possible. Formalised evidence-based pathways provide a practical treatment guide and can help reduce unwanted variations, as standardising clinical processes through the use of a pathway is known to optimise the quality of treatments and improve patient satisfaction.

    7. Poster

      Der Stumpfcast des HGZ Bad Bevensen: Innovation in der Wundheilung zur frühen Behandlung von Unterschenkel-Amputationen

      Poster presented at DEWU 2019 08.05.2019 Bremen, Germany
    8. Poster

      Achieving healing in a young adult with a venous leg ulcer using a biofilm pathway and short stretch bandaging

      Poster presented at Wound Care Today 2019 27.02.2019 Milton Keynes, UK

      Introduction

      Liam is a 26 year old man who suffered a post trauma DVT when just 18 years old. He has Warfarin therapy and has a history of venous leg ulceration for 8 years. Because of the damage to his primary, deep veins he had developed a collateral venous circulation.

      Liam describes having a leg ulcer at a young age as “life changing”. It stopped him playing sport and swimming and it changed how he interacting with friends. Because of his damaged circulation and medication he lived with the constant fear that his leg was going to deteriorate or bleed. Despite this, Liam continued to work full time and support his family.

       

      Method

      In the summer of 2018, Liam’s nurse changes his treatment from a combination long-stretch cohesive bandage system, to a cohesive short stretch bandage system. She also implemented a Monofilament fibre biofilm based treatment regime to expedite wound bed preparation and disruption of the biofilm (Morris et al, 2016).

       

      Results

      There was a dramatic reduction in leg oedema and improvement in leg shape almost immediately the new bandage system was started. Things continued to improve over the following months. Liam reported that the cohesive short stretch bandage system made “his leg feels much more comfortable with less ridging and less slippage”. His leg shape was much better, and it was easier to wear socks and shoes. Liam said that nobody noticed he had a bandage on.

      In December 2018, after 8 years of ulceration, Liam’s venous leg ulcer healed.

       

      Conclusion

      This case study demonstrates how learning and implementing new knowledge, technology and skills can translate into improved patient outcomes. By sharing Liam’s story we can really understand the devastating effect a leg ulcer can have, especially on a teenager and young adult.

      Liam now has a bespoke plan for the prevention of future venous leg ulcers which will include higher compression during working periods when he will be on his feet for long periods. This is achieved by using short stretch wrap systems to encourage continued self-care and ownership of his long term condition.

    9. Poster

      Assessing the performance of an improved superabsorbent wound dressing: a multi-centre clinical evaluation

      Poster presented at CICA 2019 20.01.2019 Paris, France

      Introduction

      This national, multicentre patient evaluation examines the enhancements that have recently been made to a superabsorbent dressing* and how this product improvement** has led to enhanced performance and improved patient related outcomes. The enhancements are a wider border and more ergonomic shape and a new structure to the superabsorbent polymer which increases absorbency.

       

      Method

      The recently developed and improved superabsorbent wound dressing was evaluated in six clinical sites on 27 patients with wounds requiring management of exudate of varying levels.

       

      Results

      The mean age of the patients who participated was 70 years and the main wound type was leg ulcer. At the start of the evaluation the surrounding skin was mostly reported to be macerated and/or red and excoriated. Exudate levels were light in 4 cases, moderate in 12 cases and heavy in 11 cases. The improved superabsorbent was used on its own as a primary dressing in only 5 cases and in combination with another primary dressing in 15 cases (7 did not answer the question). A topical antimicrobial was combined with the new superabsorbent in 60% of cases and a contact layer in 20% of cases. It was used under full or reduced compression in 21 cases. In most cases the improved superabsorbent replaced either another superabsorbent or absorbent dressing. The frequency of dressing changes varied from daily to weekly prior to the evaluation with 7 clinicians stating that the new and improved superabsorbent had reduced the frequency of dressing changes. The others either did not comment on this, or did not see a change. Other parameters were rated as good and very good and are outlined in Table 1.

       

      Discussion

      Although the improved superabsorbent dressing includes a very effective wound contact layer, 20% of cases used the product in combination with another contact layer. Use with another contact layer would not be recommended as this is not necessary and increases costs. Superabsorbent dressings are designed for the management of medium to high levels of exudate and should not be considered in low exudate.

       

      Conclusion

      The new and improved superabsorbent wound dressing demonstrated clear advantages for clinicians managing exudate. The patient shown in Figure 1 - 3 is still being managed with the improved product as this is the only dressing he doesn’t react to.

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    10. Journal article

      Role of endoscopic vacuum therapy in the management of gastrointestinal transmural defects

      World journal of gastrointestinal endoscopy 2019 11(5) 329344

      A gastrointestinal (GI) transmural defect is defined as total rupture of the GI wall, and these defects can be divided into three categories: perforations, leaks, and fistulas. Surgical management of these defects is usually challenging and may be associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Recently, several novel endoscopic techniques have been developed, and endoscopy has become a first-line approach for therapy of these conditions. The use of endoscopic vacuum therapy (EVT) is increasing with favorable results. This technique involves endoscopic placement of a sponge connected to a nasogastric tube into the defect cavity or lumen. This promotes healing via five mechanisms, including macrodeformation, microdeformation, changes in perfusion, exudate control, and bacterial clearance, which is similar to the mechanisms in which skin wounds are treated with commonly employed wound vacuums. EVT can be used in the upper GI tract, small bowel, biliopancreatic regions, and lower GI tract, with variable success rates and a satisfactory safety profile. In this article, we review and discuss the mechanism of action, materials, techniques, efficacy, and safety of EVT in the management of patients with GI transmural defects.

      PMID 31205594
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