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    Our research and development teams operate at a global level and generate synergies from our collective expertise and by drawing on related disciplines. We are also constantly exchanging information at an international level with independent technical institutions, key opinion leaders and multipliers in order to be able to ensure cooperation and knowledge management of the highest order. As part of this process, we also conduct extensive research, the results of which we continually present in workshops, at conferences and symposiums - either in documentation or talks given by our cooperation partners - and also publish in renowned scientific journals. This database contains a large number of these evidence-based scientific articles, most of which have been evaluated by independent assessors:

    1. Journal article

      A real-world study of a calcium alginate dressing for various etiology wounds on clinical performance, usability, and safety

      Wounds 2023 35(2) 2631

      Introduction. Complex wounds require a moist wound healing environment and exudate control. Alginate dressings are highly absorbable and available as sheets for superficial wounds and ropes for deeper wounds. Objective. This study evaluates the real-world performance of a conformable CAD containing mannuronic acid for various wound types. Materials and Methods. The usability and safety of the tested CAD were evaluated in adult patients with various wound types. Further endpoints were clinician satisfaction with dressing application and suitability for wound type and their opinion of the tested CAD compared with other dressings of this type. Results. The study included 83 patients with exuding wounds (42 male [51%]; 41 female [49%]) and a mean age of 74.54 years (SD ± 15.54 years). Thirteen clinicians (76%) (x = 1.24) rated the first CAD application as very easy, 4 (24%) as easy, and 1 (6%) as not easy. The time for dressing application was ranked as very good (x = 1.65) by 8 clinicians (47%), while 7 (41%) rated the time for application as good, and 2 (12%) gave a satisfactory rating. Conclusion. The CAD sheet and rope were safe to use and fit for purpose in wounds of various etiologies. In addition, the dressing was easy to handle and remove, formed a gel faster than other alginates, and outperformed other previous products.

      Products Suprasorb A Pro
      PMID 36877937
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    2. Journal article

      Minimally invasive intrathoracic negative-pressure therapy and flexible thoracoscopy (FlexVATS) for patients with pleural empyema

      Scientific Reports 2023 13(1) 10869

      To determine whether a new surgical method using a flexible endoscope (FlexVATS) to perform sparing debridement and apply negative-pressure therapy without extensive decortication may be an alternative treatment option for empyema. Surgical treatment of pleural empyema is associated with considerable postoperative complications and mortality rates, and alternative treatment options are being explored to improve patient outcomes. This was a prospective case series. Seventeen consecutive patients treated with FlexVATS between February 2021 and August 2022 were included in the study. Only patients for whom FlexVATS was the first therapeutic intervention for pleural empyema were included. Treatment success, defined as infection resolution, was the primary endpoint of the study. The secondary endpoints were length of hospital stay, 90-day mortality, and empyema cavity volume reduction. Patients who had previously been treated for pleural empyema by either drainage or surgery were excluded. The trial was performed as a single-centre study at a tertiary medical centre in Germany. In total, 17 patients with pleural empyema were included in the study. The median (IQR) duration of vacuum treatment was 15 days (8-35 days). Twelve of the 17 (71%) patients were successfully treated, and a significant reduction in the empyema cavity volume was observed. 41% of the dressing changes were performed outside the operating room. Compared with a historic cohort of conventionally treated patients (decortication via VATS or thoracotomy), the 90-day mortality rates tended to be lower without reaching statistical significance. Three patients (18%) died in hospital during treatment. No negative pressure-therapy-related complications were observed. FlexVATS therapy is a promising alternative therapy for both healthy and debilitated patients with pleural empyema. Larger randomised trials are required to validate this treatment option.

      PMID 37407677
    3. Journal article

      Endoscopic negative pressure therapy for duodenal leaks

      Frontiers in Surgery 2023 10

      Background and study aim: Endoscopic negative pressure therapy (ENPT) is well established in the treatment of perforations of various etiologies in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract. For duodenal perforations exist only case reports and series. Different indications are possible for ENPT in duodenal position: primary therapy for leaks, preemptive therapy after surgery for example, after ulcer suturing or resection with anastomoses, or as second line therapy in cases of recurrent anastomotic insufficiencies with leakage of duodenal secretion.


      Methods: A retrospective 4-year case series of negative pressure therapy in duodenal position indicated by different etiologies and a comprehensive review of current literature on endoscopic negative pressure duodenal therapy are presented.


      Results: Patients with primary duodenal leaks n= 6 and with duodenal stump insufficiencies n = 4 were included. In seven patients ENPT was the first line and sole therapy. Primary surgery for duodenal leak was performed in n = 3 patients. Mean duration of ENPT was 11.0 days, mean hospital stay was 30.0 days. Re-operation after start of ENPT was necessary in two patients with duodenal stump insufficiencies. Surgery after termination of the ENPT was not necessary in any patient.


      Discussion: In our case series and in the literature, ENPT has been shown to be very successful in the therapy of duodenal leaks. A challenge in ENPT for duodenal leaks is the appropriate length of the probe to safely reach the leak and keep the open pore element at the end of the probe in place despite intestinal motility.

    4. Journal article

      Secondary wound closure with a new transparent negative-pressure dressing

      Chirurgie 2023

      Secondary healing surgical wounds can be treated with negative-pressure therapy. Dressing changes can be painful due to the strong adherence of the polyurethane foam placed in the wound. After debridement and conditioning of the wound bed, secondary surgical wound closure with a surgical suture can be performed. Cutaneous negative-pressure therapy is used preventively after primary surgical suturing. Descriptions for secondary wound closure without a surgical suture are not known to date. The preparation and handling of an innovative transparent dressing for the cutaneous application of negative-pressure therapy is demonstrated here. The dressing assembly consists of a transparent drainage film and a transparent occlusion film. Negative pressure is applied via a tubing connector using a negative pressure pump. A new method of secondary wound closure using the transparent negative-pressure dressing is presented based on a case example. The treatment cycle with instructions for making the dressing is shown in a video.

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    5. Journal article

      Adjustable compression wraps: stretch, interface pressures and static stiffness indices

      International angiology : a journal of the International Union of Angiology 2023


      Adjustable compression wraps (ACWs) may represent the future of compression for the treatment of the most severe stages of chronic venous diseases and lymphedema. We tested in five healthy subjects: Coolflex® from Sigvaris®; Juzo wrap 6000®, Readywrap® from Lohmann Rauscher®; Juxtafit® and Juxtalite® from Medi®, Compreflex® from Sigvaris®. The objective of this pilot study was to study the stretch, interface pressures, and Static Stiffness Index (SSI) of the six ACWs applied to the leg.


      The stretch was evaluated by stretching the ACWs to their maximum length. Interface pressure measurements were performed using a PicoPress® transducer and a probe placed at point B1. Interface pressures were measured in the supine resting position and in the standing position. We calculated the SSI. We started the measurements at 20 mmHg in the supine position and increased the pressures by 5 mmHg to 5 mmHg.


      Coolflex® (inelastic ACW) cannot exceed a maximum pressure of 30 mmHg at rest with a maximum SSI of approximately 30 mmHg. Juzo wrap 6000® (a 50% stretch) and Readywrap® (a 60% stretch) have a profile of stiffness very near one to the other. The optimal stiffness for Juzo is from 16 mmHg to of 30 mmHg for a resting pressure between 25 mmHg and 40 mmHg. For Readywrap, the optimal stiffness is from 17 mmHg to 30 mmHg with a maximum SSI of 35mmHg. The optimal application zone of this wrap at rest is 30 to 45 mmHg. Juxtafit®, Juxtalite® and Compreflex® (respectively 70%, 80%, 124% stretch) can be applied with pressures above 60 mmHg but with maximum SSI of 20 mmHg for Circaid® and>30 mmHg for Compreflex®.


      This pilot study allows us to propose a classification of wraps according to their stretch: inelastic ACW and short or long stretch ACW (50-60% and 70%, 80%, and 124% stretch). Their stretch and stiffness could help to better determine what could be expected of ACWs in clinical practice.

      PMID 36795457
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    6. Journal article

      Intrathorakale Unterdrucktherapie des Pleuraempyems unter Einsatz einer offenporigen Drainagefolie

      Chirurgie (Heidelberg, Germany) 2023 94(4) 349360


      We report our initial experience with intrathoracic negative pressure therapy (ITNPT) in the stage-adjusted therapy of pleural empyema (PE) based on a case series.


      ITNPT represents a further development in negative pressure therapy that is designed to be used in the thoracic cavity. After thoracic surgical open debridement, an intrathoracic negative pressure dressing was inserted. The drainage elements used were a thin open-pore double-layer drainage film (OF) with open-pore polyurethane foams (PUF). Only the OF was placed in direct contact with the lung parenchyma. Negative pressure was generated using an electronic pump (continuous suction, -75 mm Hg). In revision thoracotomies, ITNPT was stopped or continued depending on local findings.


      31 patients with stage II and III pleural empyemas were treated. ITNPT was administered at the time of primary procedure (n = 17) or revision (n = 14). ITNPT was given over a duration of m = 10 days (2-18 days), change interval m = 4 d (2-6 d). The application of intrathoracic negative pressure dressings was performed m = 3.5 (1-6) times. The empyema cavity continuously reduced in size and was cleansed by the suction. The OF has a minimum intrinsic volume with maximum absorption surface. Once negative pressure is established, there is no intrathoracic dead volume and the parenchyma can expand.


      The protective material properties of OF make ITNPT suitable for the treatment of pleural empyema. Targeted local intrathoracic drainage of the septic focus is a possible adjunct to surgery. The treatment regimen requires surgical dressings to be changed repeatedly. The method is suitable for the treatment of complex stage II and III pleural empyemas.


      The OF can be used as an intrathoracic drainage element for ITNPT in pleural empyema. This new application option expands the range of indications for negative pressure therapy.


      EINLEITUNG: Anhand einer Fallserie berichten wir über unsere ersten Erfahrungen mit einer intrathorakalen Unterdrucktherapie (ITNPT) in der stadienadaptierten Therapie des Pleuraempyems (PE).


      Die ITNPT ist eine Weiterentwicklung der Unterdrucktherapie für die intrathorakale Anwendung. Nach thoraxchirurgischem offenen Débridement wurde ein intrathorakaler Unterdruckverband installiert. Als Drainageelemente verwendeten wir eine dünne offenporige doppellagige Drainagefolie (OF) mit offenporigen Polyurethanschäumen (PUS). Ausschließlich die OF wurde in direktem Kontakt zum Lungenparenchym angelegt. Die Unterdruckerzeugung erfolgte mit einer elektronischen Pumpe (kontinuierlicher Sog, −75 mm Hg). In der Revisionthorakotomie wurde je nach Lokalbefund die ITNPT beendet oder fortgeführt.


      Es wurden 31 Patienten im PE-Stadium II und III behandelt. Die ITNPT erfolgte bereits beim Primäreingriff (n = 17) oder bei Revision (n = 14). Die ITNPT erfolgte über einen Dauer von m = 10 Tagen (2–18 Tage), Wechselintervall m = 4 d (2–6 d). Die intrathorakaler Unterdruckverband-Anlage wurde in m = 3,5 (1–6) mal vorgenommen. Die Empyemhöhle verkleinerte und reinigte sich unter dem Sog kontinuierlich. Die OF hat ein minimales Eigenvolumen bei maximaler Resorptionsoberfläche. Nach Anlage des Unterdrucks besteht kein intrathorakales Totvolumen, das Parenchym kann sich entfalten.


      Die schonenden Materialeigenschaften der OF ermöglichen die ITNPT zur Behandlung des Pleuraempyems. Es ist eine gezielte lokale intrathorakale Sanierung des septischen Focus in Ergänzung zur operativen Therapie möglich. Das Behandlungsregime erfordert wiederholte operative Verbandswechsel. Die Methode ist geeignet zur Behandlung komplizierter PIeuraempyeme im Stadium II und III.


      Die OF kann als intrathorakales Drainageelement zur ITNPT bei Pleuraempyemen verwendet werden. Das Indikationsspektrum der Unterdrucktherapie erweitert sich um diese neue Anwendungsoption.

      PMID 36754892
    7. Poster

      Wound bed preparation of a sacral pressure injury for dermal template using autolytic debridement

      Poster presented at Wounds Australia 2022 Conference 14.09.2022 Sydney


      A 65-year-old male bed bound patient with a BMI of 16 kg/m², a schizoid personality disorder, former strong alcoholism and an MCA stroke in 2019 with low rehabilitation potential, was presented with a sacral pressure injury to the District Nursing Service.


      Action(s) taken/ treatment provided

      The pressure injury was subjected to sharp debridement to remove the hard necrotic tissue. For further autolytic debridement, the wound was treated with a hydrogel wound dressing*. For exudate management, a superabsorbent wound dressing** was used as a secondary association. In the first week, the wound was additionally debrided mechanically. However, since this resulted in more arterial bleeding, treatment completely switched to autolytic debridement. Dressing changes were completed daily by Rest Home staff with weekly input from the District Nurse.



      After 5 days of autolytic debridement, dark eschar started to soften. Further maceration of the peri wound skin was prevented by the superabsorbent dressing via absorbing high quantities of exudate. After 15 days, the necrotic areas were starting to lift up. Granulation on some areas of the wound bed developed. After 28 days, some edges of the wound bed had partially healed. After 43 days the wound had healed to such an extent that autolytic debridement was no longer indicated and application of a dermal template commenced.


      Lesson(s) learned

      The hydrogel wound dressing in combination with the superabsorbent dressing were able to debride and prepare the wound bed for the next step of application with a dermal template.

    8. Poster

      The difficult case: NPWT for extensive soft tissue defects of the lower extremity

      Poster presented at EWMA 2022 23.05.2022 Paris, France


      We report on the case of a 14-year-old girl with extensive soft tissue defects on the right lower extremity up to the right hip following a traffic accident. The patient suffered a subtotal amputation of the right lower extremity with a rupture of the external iliac artery and the iliac vein.



      After CTA, the pulseless, ischemic leg was treated with autologous arterial und venous vascular graft. Perfusion resumed 4 hours post-accident. Osteosynthesis was carried out using an external fixator. Despite fasciotomy, extensive soft tissue necrosis occurred on the right lower extremity. Due to pre-terminal multiple organ failure caused by SIRS, a large-area necrosectomy was performed and NPWT started. The occlusive dressing was applied to the entire right lower extremity including the anogenital area up to the iliac crest using a tubular bandage*.


      Results / Discussion:

      This method allowed for sufficient negative pressure on the entire hip area and the entire right lower extremity. Septic condition improved immediately. After stimulating wound granulation, the secondary, serial split skin coverage of the defects was possible.



      In the case of extensive soft tissue defects on the lower extremity with deep substance defects in the area of the hip and simultaneous external fixation on the pelvic ring as well as cystofix and colostoma creation, the establishment of an NPWT system typically is difficult and time-consuming. With the tubular bandage it was possible to use a reliable, reproducible, time-saving occlusive and elastic system for the NPWT.

    9. Journal article

      Pre-emptive active drainage of reflux (PARD) in Ivor-Lewis oesophagectomy with negative pressure and simultaneous enteral nutrition using a double-lumen open-pore film drain (dOFD)

      Surgical endoscopy 2022


      Postoperative reflux can compromise anastomotic healing after Ivor-Lewis oesophagectomy (ILE). We report on Pre-emptive Active Reflux Drainage (PARD) using a new double-lumen open-pore film drain (dOFD) with negative pressure to protect the anastomosis.


      To prepare a dOFD, the gastric channel of a triluminal tube (Freka®Trelumina, Fresenius) is coated with a double-layered open-pore film (Suprasorb®CNP drainage film, Lohmann & Rauscher) over 25 cm. The ventilation channel is blocked. The filmcoated segment is placed in the stomach and the intestinal feeding tube in the duodenum. Negative pressure is applied with an electronic vacuum pump (- 125 mmHg, continuous suction) to the gastric channel. Depending on the findings in the endoscopic control, PARD will either be continued or terminated.


      PARD was used in 24 patients with ILE and started intraoperatively. Healing was observed in all the anastomoses. The median duration of PARD was 8 days (range 4-21). In 10 of 24 patients (40%) there were issues with anastomotic healing which we defined as "at-risk anastomosis". No additional endoscopic procedures or surgical revisions to the anastomoses were required.


      PARD with dOFD contributes to the protection of anastomosis after ILE. Negative pressure applied to the dOFD (a nasogastric tube) enables enteral nutrition to be delivered simultaneously with permanent evacuation and decompression.

      PMID 34973079
    10. Journal article

      Clinical experience using a monofilament fiber cleansing and debriding technology for various skin conditions.

      Journal of Drugs in Dermatology 2022 21(11) 11731180

      Background: Gentle skin cleansing and exfoliation and the use of moisturizers as an adjunct to medical treatment should be part of the prevention, treatment, and maintenance of cutaneous conditions such as acne vulgaris (acne) psoriasis, and xerosis. A monofilament fiber debriding technology (MFDT) is used for effective, safe, and rapid skin cleansing and exfoliation and debris, slough, and biofilm removal. The current review addresses the clinical experience using MFDT for various cutaneous conditions that require cleansing or exfoliation or both and how to combine it with medical treatment.


      Methods: A literature review explored clinical insights into the role of skin cleansing and exfoliation for patients with various dermatological conditions.

      The searches yielded 29 publications, 7 guidelines/algorithms, 13 reviews, 8 clinical studies, and one in vitro study.


      Results: Mechanical cleansing using a device can be helpful; however, avoid injury of the skin as it may result in thickening of the epidermis leading to hyperkeratosis and disruption of the skin barrier. Clinical experience with MFDT for acne, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and xerosis is discussed. Additionally, MFDT was used to exfoliate hyperkeratosis, actinic keratosis, and traumatic skin tattoos.


      Conclusions: Mechanical cleansing using MFDT was shown to be safe and beneficial for skin cleansing and exfoliation of various cutaneous conditions; however, only anecdotal evidence or small studies are available to support its use for these conditions.

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